package ij.plugin;
import ij.IJ;
import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;

 * This plugin implements the File/Import/URL command and the commands in the Help menu that 
 * open web pages. It is based on Eric Albert's cross-platform (Windows, Mac OS X and Unix) 
 * BrowserLauncher class.
 * <p>
 * BrowserLauncher is a class that provides one static method, openURL, which opens the default
 * web browser for the current user of the system to the given URL.  It may support other
 * protocols depending on the system -- mailto, ftp, etc. -- but that has not been rigorously
 * tested and is not guaranteed to work.
 * <p>
 * Yes, this is platform-specific code, and yes, it may rely on classes on certain platforms
 * that are not part of the standard JDK.  What we're trying to do, though, is to take something
 * that's frequently desirable but inherently platform-specific -- opening a default browser --
 * and allow programmers (you, for example) to do so without worrying about dropping into native
 * code or doing anything else similarly evil.
 * <p>
 * Anyway, this code is completely in Java and will run on all JDK 1.1-compliant systems without
 * modification or a need for additional libraries.  All classes that are required on certain
 * platforms to allow this to run are dynamically loaded at runtime via reflection and, if not
 * found, will not cause this to do anything other than returning an error when opening the
 * browser.
 * <p>
 * This code is Copyright 1999-2001 by Eric Albert ( and may be
 * redistributed or modified in any form without restrictions as long as the portion of this
 * comment from this paragraph through the end of the comment is not removed.  The author
 * requests that he be notified of any application, applet, or other binary that makes use of
 * this code, but that's more out of curiosity than anything and is not required.  This software
 * includes no warranty.  The author is not repsonsible for any loss of data or functionality
 * or any adverse or unexpected effects of using this software.
 * <p>
 * Credits:
 * <br>Steven Spencer, JavaWorld magazine (<a href="">Java Tip 66</a>)
 * <br>Thanks also to Ron B. Yeh, Eric Shapiro, Ben Engber, Paul Teitlebaum, Andrea Cantatore,
 * Larry Barowski, Trevor Bedzek, Frank Miedrich, and Ron Rabakukk
 * @author Eric Albert (<a href=""></a>)
 * @version 1.4b1 (Released June 20, 2001)
public class BrowserLauncher implements PlugIn {
    /** The class */
    private static Class mrjFileUtilsClass;
    /** The openURL method of */
    private static Method openURL;
    private static boolean error;
    static {loadClasses();}

    /** Opens the specified URL (default is the ImageJ home page). */
    public void run(String theURL) {
        if (error) return;
        if (theURL==null || theURL.equals(""))
            theURL = IJ.URL;
        try {openURL(theURL);}
        catch (IOException e) {}

     * Attempts to open the default web browser to the given URL.
     * @param url The URL to open
     * @throws IOException If the web browser could not be located or does not run
    public static void openURL(String url) throws IOException {
        String errorMessage = "";
        if (IJ.isMacOSX()) {
            if (IJ.isJava16())
                IJ.runMacro("exec('open', getArgument())",url);
            else {
                try {
                    Method aMethod = mrjFileUtilsClass.getDeclaredMethod("sharedWorkspace", new Class[] {});
                    Object aTarget = aMethod.invoke( mrjFileUtilsClass, new Object[] {});
                    openURL.invoke(aTarget, new Object[] { new url )}); 
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    errorMessage = ""+e;
        } else if (IJ.isWindows()) {
            String cmd = "rundll32 url.dll,FileProtocolHandler " + url;
            if (System.getProperty("").startsWith("Windows 2000"))
                cmd = "rundll32 shell32.dll,ShellExec_RunDLL " + url;
            Process process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec(cmd);
            // This avoids a memory leak on some versions of Java on Windows.
            // That's hinted at in <>.
            try {
            } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
                throw new IOException("InterruptedException while launching browser: " + ie.getMessage());
        } else {
                // Assume Linux or Unix
                // Based on BareBonesBrowserLaunch (
                // The utility 'xdg-open' launches the URL in the user's preferred browser,
                // therefore we try to use it first, before trying to discover other browsers.
                String[] browsers = {"xdg-open", "netscape", "firefox", "konqueror", "mozilla", "opera", "epiphany", "lynx" };
                String browserName = null;
                try {
                    for (int count=0; count<browsers.length && browserName==null; count++) {
                        String[] c = new String[] {"which", browsers[count]};
                        if (Runtime.getRuntime().exec(c).waitFor()==0)
                            browserName = browsers[count];
                    if (browserName==null)
                        ij.IJ.error("BrowserLauncher", "Could not find a browser");
                        Runtime.getRuntime().exec(new String[] {browserName, url});
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    throw new IOException("Exception while launching browser: " + e.getMessage());
     * Called by a static initializer to load any classes, fields, and methods 
     * required at runtime to locate the user's web browser.
    private static void loadClasses() {
        if (IJ.isMacOSX() && !IJ.isJava16()) {
            try {
                if (new File("/System/Library/Java/com/apple/cocoa/application/NSWorkspace.class").exists()) {
                    ClassLoader classLoader = new URLClassLoader(new URL[]{new File("/System/Library/Java").toURL()});
                    mrjFileUtilsClass = Class.forName("", true, classLoader);
                } else
                    mrjFileUtilsClass = Class.forName("");
                openURL = mrjFileUtilsClass.getDeclaredMethod("openURL", new Class[] { });
            } catch (Exception e) {
                error = true;