Many capabilities of NIH image could not be covered in a paper of this length. Among these are image arithmetic, background subtraction, operation of frame grabber cards, and using the rapidly increasing number of plug-ins. Use of these is covered in the NIH Image Manual. Two useful reference books are Russ 1990 and 1994. Most of the image processing operations described in these books, except for tomography, are available (or soon will be) in NIH Image.

This paper is to intended to give the microscopist hands-on experience with some of the tools provided by NIH Image for the inspection and analysis of digital images. Many laboratories use it on a daily basis for acquiring images, sharing data and writing papers, as well as for analyzing images and enhancing them.

Published research assisted by the use of NIH Image should use the following quote in the materials and methods section "... analysis performed on a Macintosh <model> computer using the public domain NIH Image program (written by Wayne Rasband at the US. National Institutes of Health and available from the Internet by anonymous FTP from

NIH Image is an indispensable tool for the analysis and sharing of digital micrographs.

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